It is no wonder that Monty's real high ability is not always realised. Viscount Montgomery's ribbons as they would appear today, not including campaign or other awards. [153] On 4 September, Antwerp, the third largest port in Europe, was captured by Horrocks with its harbour mostly intact. My own view is that to win a war of this sort, you must be ruthless. Bishop Montgomery considered it his duty to spend as much time as possible in the rural areas of Tasmania and was away for up to six months at a time. Britain declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939. [144] The First Canadian Army launched two operations, Operation Totalize on 7 August, which advanced only 9 miles (14 km) in four days in the face of fierce German resistance, and Operation Tractable on 14 August, which finally took Falaise on 17 August. Was für ein Endziel visieren Sie nach dem Kauf mit Ihrem Bernard montgomery ww2 an? Montgomery came to the conclusion that the conflict could not be won without harsh measures, and that self-government for Ireland was the only feasible solution; in 1923, after the establishment of the Irish Free State and during the Irish Civil War, Montgomery wrote to Colonel Arthur Ernest Percival of the Essex Regiment: Personally, my whole attention was given to defeating the rebels but it never bothered me a bit how many houses were burnt. Following the American breakout, there followed the Battle of Falaise Gap as the British, Canadian and Polish soldiers of 21st Army Group commanded by Montgomery advanced south while the American and French soldiers of Bradley's 12th Army Group advanced north to encircle the German Army Group B at Falaise as Montgomery waged what Urban called "a huge battle of annihilation" in August 1944. Um der vielfältigen Qualität der Produkte zu entsprechen, bewerten wir im Vergleich eine Vielzahl von Faktoren. It crossed the Rhine on 24 March 1945, in Operation Plunder, which took place two weeks after the First United States Army had crossed the Rhine after capturing the Ludendorff Bridge during the Battle of Remagen. Wie sehen die Amazon Rezensionen aus? The 3rd Division was deployed to Belgium as part of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). A short time later, tragedy struck when Elizabeth died from septicemia following an amputation caused by an infected insect bite. [167] In the meantime, the First Canadian Army, which been given the task of clearing the mouth of the river Scheldt, despite the fact that in the words of Copp and Vogel "...that Montgomery's Directive required the Canadians to continue to fight alone for almost two weeks in a battle which everyone agreed could only be won with the aid of additional divisions". Il termine la guerre avec le grade (temporaire) de lieutenant-… He commanded British and Commonwealth troops in one of the decisive battles of the war at El Alamein in Libya and afterwards wrote several incisive and clear books about military leadership. Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery, British field marshal and one of the outstanding Allied commanders in World War II. [150] The British journalist Mark Urban writes that Montgomery seemed unable to grasp that as the majority of the 2.2 million Allied soldiers fighting against Germany on the Western Front were now American (the ratio was 3:1) that it was politically unacceptable to American public opinion to have Montgomery remain as Land Forces Commander as: "Politics would not allow him to carry on giving orders to great armies of Americans simply because, in his view, he was better than their generals. [173] Ramsay in very strong language argued to Eisenhower that the Allies could only invade Germany if Antwerp was opened, and that as long as the three Canadian divisions fighting in the Scheldt had shortages of ammunition and artillery shells because Montgomery made the Arnhem salient his first priority, then Antwerp would not be opened anytime soon. Moving through a variety of peacetime postings, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1931 and rejoined the Royal Warwickshire Regiment for service in the Middle East and India. [144] On 11 August, Montgomery changed his plan, with the Canadians to take Falaise and to meet the Americans at Argentan. [28] A photograph from October 1918, reproduced in many biographies, shows the then unknown Lieutenant Colonel Montgomery standing in front of Winston Churchill (then the Minister of Munitions) at the parade following the liberation of Lille. In the years between World War I and World War II, Montgomery served in a number of locations around the world, rising steadily through the ranks of the army. [183], However Ambrose, writing in 1997, maintained that "Putting Monty in command of the northern flank had no effect on the battle". He also took part in the Battle of Passchendaele in late-1917 before finishing the war as chief of staff of the 47th (2nd London) Division. [112], On 7 July, Montgomery began Operation Charnwood with a carpet bombing offensive that turned much of the French countryside and the city of Caen into a wasteland. Alle Bernard montgomery ww2 im Blick. [104] General Friedrich Dollmann of the 7th Army had to commit the newly arrived II SS Corps to stop the British offensive. [206], On the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's European in 1951, Montgomery became Eisenhower's deputy [207] He would continue to serve under Eisenhower's successors, Generals Matthew Ridgway and Al Gruenther, until his retirement, aged nearly 71, in 1958. [169] Rundstedt argued with Hitler that as long as the Allies could not use the port of Antwerp, the Allies would lack the logistical capacity for an invasion of Germany. A memo summarising Montgomery's operations written by Eisenhower's chief of staff, General Walter Bedell Smith who met with Montgomery in late June 1944 says nothing about Montgomery conducting a "holding operation" in the Caen sector, and instead speaks of him seeking a "breakout" into the plains south of the Seine. [178] If the attack were to succeed in capturing Antwerp, the whole of 21st Army Group, along with US Ninth Army and most of US First Army would be trapped without supplies behind German lines. Créez gratuitement votre compte sur Deezer pour écouter The Campaign In Europe 1944 (17 September 1944) par Bernard Montgomery, et accédez à plus de 56 millions de titres. He then served as NATO's Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe until his retirement in 1958. Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery during WW2 (1942-1943) in his M3A5 General Grant Mk11 tank (Monty's Charger) in North Africa In the center from left:the conquerer of Berlin General Georgy Zhukov (with sash), the British General Bernard Montgomery and the Soviet General Konstantin Rokossovsky during the Victory Parade in Berlin. In some ways, this was a sensible decision. Bernard Montgomery received a visit from Dwight Eisenhower at Brussels, Belgium during which Montgomery criticized Eisenhower's broad front strategy and demanded his army group to be the sole offensive force as current strategy placed the other two army groups in poor positions to launch attacks into Germany. Erfahrungsberichte mit Bernard montgomery ww2. According to J. Toland, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCopp2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFCaddick-Adams2015 (, The Supreme Command, Forrest C Pogue, Chapter XX – The Winter Counteroffensives, pp. Although he still wore a standard British officer's cap on arrival in the desert, he briefly wore an Australian broad-brimmed hat before switching to wearing the black beret (with the badge of the Royal Tank Regiment and the British General Officer's badge) for which he became notable. [nb 1], With the British and American forces under Montgomery's command holding the northern flank of the German assault, General Patton's Third Army, which was 90 miles (140 km) to the south, turned north and fought its way through the severe weather and German opposition to relieve the besieged American forces in Bastogne. Montgomery died in 1976. In 1946, he was elevated to Viscount Montgomery of Alamein for his accomplishments. A Brief History. He was ruthless in sacking officers he considered would be unfit for command in action. Six days after Montgomery took command of the northern flank, General Patton's 3rd Army relieved the besieged American forces in Bastogne. [155], On 3 September 1944 Hitler ordered the 15th German Army, which had been stationed in the Pas de Calais region and was withdrawing north into the Low Countries, to hold the mouth of the river Scheldt to deprive the Allies of the use of Antwerp. [85] He kept the initiative, applying superior strength when it suited him, forcing Rommel out of each successive defensive position. [15], and Henry was at the time still only an Anglican vicar. [141] Brooke wrote in defence of his protégé Montgomery: "Ike knows nothing about strategy and is 'quite' unsuited to the post of Supreme Commander. [44] Like many British POWs, the most famous being General Richard O'Connor, Dick Carver escaped in September 1943 during the brief hiatus between Italy's departure from the war and the German seizure of the country. Montgomery first saw action in the First World War as a junior officer of the Royal Warwickshire Regiment. Anticipating that Field Marshal Erwin Rommel would attempt to turn his left flank, he strengthened this area and defeated the noted German commander at the Battle of Alam Halfa in early September. He decided for the latter". [92] He was assigned to command the 21st Army Group consisting of all Allied ground forces participating in Operation Overlord, codename for the Allied invasion of Normandy. [163] Montgomery was highly impatient with Simonds, complaining that it had taken Crocker's I Corps only two days to take Le Havre while it took Simonds two weeks to take Boulogne and Calais, but Simonds noted that at Le Havre, three divisions and two brigades had been employed, whereas at both Boulogne and Calais, only two brigades were sent in to take both cities. Mit welcher Häufigkeit wird der Bernard montgomery ww2 aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nachangewendet werden? I don't suppose anybody would put up with my sort of behaviour these days. [76], The conquest of Libya was essential for airfields to support Malta and to threaten the rear of Axis forces opposing Operation Torch. In the inter-war years he commanded the 17th (Service) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers and, later, the 1st Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment before becoming commander of the 9th Infantry Brigade and then General officer commanding (GOC), 8th Infantry Division. From 1948 to 1951, he served as Chairman of the Commanders-in-Chief Committee of the Western Union. Eventually, attacking from a distance no longer seemed to him the best option and he decided to take a more direct approach to fighting the enemy. Serving in General Alan Brooke's II Corps, Montgomery earned his superior's praise. [171] As it was, Simonds made only slow progress in October 1944 during the fighting in the Battle of the Scheldt, although he was praised by Copp for imaginative and aggressive leadership who managed to achieve much, despite all of the odds against him. Bernard Montgomery, 1 vicomte Montgomery of Alamein, est un field marshal britannique, né le 17 novembre 1887 à Londres et mort le 24 mars 1976 à Alton (Hampshire). [133] Again Bradley confirmed Montgomery's plan and that the capture of Caen was only incidental to his mission, not critical. After commanding the 17th (Service) Battalion of the Royal Fusiliers in the British Army of the Rhine during the occupation, Montgomery reverted to the rank of captain in November 1919. [140] On 20 July, Montgomery met Eisenhower and on 21 July Churchill at the TAC in France. It says much for his personality that Montgomery found others to agree with him, despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary. [41] While serving as a GSO2[42] with Eighth Army, Dick Carver was sent forward during the pursuit after El Alamein to help identify a new site for Eighth Army HQ. [175] Urban wrote that Montgomery's most "serious failure" in the entire war was not the well publicised Battle of Arnhem, but rather his lack of interest in opening up Antwerp, as without it the entire Allied advance from the North Sea to the Swiss Alps stalled in the autumn of 1944 for logistical reasons. Over 30,000 prisoners of war were taken,[82] including the German second-in-command, General von Thoma, as well as eight other general officers. There was still £13,000 to pay on a mortgage, a large debt in the 1880s (equivalent to £1,456,259 in 2019). Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed ), memorial page for Bernard Law Montgomery (17 Nov 1887–24 Mar 1976), Find a Grave Memorial no. [27] He returned to the Western Front in early-1916 as a general staff officer in the 33rd Division and took part in the Battle of Arras in April–May 1917. [141] About 10,000 Germans had been killed in the Battle of the Falaise Gap, which led a stunned Eisenhower, who viewed the battlefield on 24 August, to comment with horror that it was impossible to walk without stepping on corpses. [14] He was probably a descendant of Colonel Alexander Montgomery (1686–1729). [99], As the campaign progressed, Montgomery altered his initial plan for the invasion and continued the strategy of attracting and holding German counter-attacks in the area north of Caen rather than to the south, to allow the US First Army in the west to take Cherbourg. The context of British casualties and the shortage of reinforcements, prompted Montgomery to "excessive caution". [105] Epsom had forced further German forces into Caen but all through June and the first half of July Rommel, Rundstedt, and Hitler were engaged in planning for a great offensive to drive the British into the sea; it was never launched and would have required the commitment of a large number of German forces to the Caen sector.[106]. [176], On 16 December 1944, at the start of the Battle of the Bulge, Montgomery's 21st Army Group was on the northern flank of the allied lines. Montgomery did not attend the funeral, claiming he was "too busy". He would also be able to ensure that British units were spared some of the high-attrition actions, but would be most prominent when the final blows were struck. Bernard Shaw Montgomery was born in London on November 17, 1887. I positioned British troops as reserves behind the First and Ninth Armies until such time as American reserves could be created.[182]. [188], By the war's end, the remaining formations of 21st Army group, First Canadian Army and British Second Army, had liberated the northern part of the Netherlands and captured much of north-west Germany, occupied Hamburg and Rostock and sealed off the Danish peninsula. [141] Montgomery began his offensive into the Suisse Normande region with Operation Bluecoat with Sir Richard O'Connor's VIII Corps and Gerard Bucknall's XXX Corps heading south. [91] Both Churchill and Eisenhower had found Montgomery difficult to work with in the past and wanted the position to go to the more affable General Sir Harold Alexander. Unable to advance further, and running out of petrol, the Wehrmacht abandoned the offensive.[177][181]. He moved his field HQ to Burg al Arab, close to the Air Force command post in order to better coordinate combined operations. The only common commander for Montgomery's all-infantry and all-armour corps was the Eighth Army Commander himself. Increasingly known for his outspoken views on a variety of topics, his postwar memoirs were severely critical of his contemporaries. [190], As CIGS, Montgomery toured Africa in 1947 and in a secret 1948 report to Prime Minister Clement Attlee's government proposed a "master plan" to amalgamate British Africa territories and to exploit the raw materials of Africa, thereby counteracting the loss of British influence in Asia. It was his refusal to engage in premature and piecemeal counter-attacks which enabled the Americans to gather their reserves and frustrate the German attempts to extend their breakthrough. [59] The invasion plans did not go ahead and plans switched to invading Cape Verde island also belonging to neutral Portugal. [27] In Palestine, Montgomery played a vital role in suppressing an Arab revolt during which it was estimated that 10% of the Palestinian adult male population was killed in the period between 1936 and 1939. [27] He became a general staff officer with IX Corps, part of General Sir Herbert Plumer's Second Army, in July 1917. Montgomery correctly predicted both the length of the battle and the number of casualties (13,500). [174] Simonds, now reinforced with British troops and Royal Marines, cleared the Scheldt by taking Walcheren island, the last of the German "fortresses" on the Scheldt, on 8 November 1944. Under pressure to mount an offensive, Montgomery began extensive planning for striking at Rommel. [22], The Great War began in August 1914 and Montgomery moved to France with his battalion that month, which was at the time part of the 10th Brigade of the 4th Division. Once taken, the city was used as the pivot point for the Allied breakout and crushing of German forces in the Falaise pocket. Sind Sie mit der Versendungsdauer des ausgesuchten Produkts OK? Il est à la bataille de la Lys et à la troisième bataille de l'Aisne (bataille du Chemin Des Dames). The operation was a strategic Allied success in drawing in the last German reserves in Normandy towards the Caen sector away from the American sector, greatly assisting the American break out in Operation Cobra. During the final days of the campaign, Montgomery led II Corps as Brooke had been recalled to London. [155], Montgomery's plan for Operation Market Garden (17–25 September 1944) was to outflank the Siegfried Line and cross the Rhine, setting the stage for later offensives into the Ruhr region. Smith jokingly replied that if Montgomery could do it he would give him a Flying Fortress complete with crew. On September 3, the Eighth Army opened the campaign in Italy by landing in Calabria. While he was away, his wife, still in her mid-twenties, gave her children "constant" beatings,[17] then ignored them most of the time as she performed the public duties of the bishop's wife. Most of the blame for this lies with Montgomery, who was foolish enough to insist that it had been done perfectly, that Normandy – and all his other battles – had been fought accordingly to a precise master plan drawn up beforehand, from which he never deviated. When German armoured forces broke through the American lines in Belgium during the Battle of the Bulge, Montgomery was given command of the northern shoulder of the Bulge. But at a tennis party in Cologne, he was able to persuade the Commander-in-chief (C-in-C) of the British Army of Occupation, Field Marshal Sir William Robertson, to add his name to the list. [37], In 1927, he met and married Elizabeth (Betty) Carver, née Hobart. [35] From January 1926 to January 1929 he served as Deputy Assistant Adjutant General at the Staff College, Camberley, in the temporary rank of lieutenant colonel. It was not good enough, apparently, to win such a complete and spectacular victory over an enemy that had conquered most of Europe unless it was done perfectly. [51] His wife died that year. This included temporary command of the US First Army and the US Ninth Army, which held up the German advance to the north of the Bulge while the US Third Army under Patton relieved Bastogne from the south. [69], Montgomery was determined that the army, navy and air forces should fight their battles in a unified, focused manner according to a detailed plan. [102] Air Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder complained that it was impossible to move fighter squadrons to France until Montgomery had captured some airfields, something he asserted that Montgomery appeared incapable of doing. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1966. On December 16, the Germans opened the Battle of the Bulge with a massive offensive. [214], The 1960 paperback edition of Montgomery's memoirs contains a publisher's note drawing attention to that broadcast, and stating that although the reader might assume from Montgomery's text that Auchinleck had been planning to retreat "into the Nile Delta or beyond" in the publisher's view it had been Auchinleck's intention to launch an offensive as soon as the Eighth Army was "rested and regrouped". She was buried alongside her husband in the 'kirkyard' behind St. Columb's Church, the small Church of Ireland church beside New Park, overlooking Lough Foyle. 378, 395, United States Army in World War II; Part 3, Volume 4, United States. In the original Overlord plan, Montgomery was determined to push past Caen to Falaise as quickly as possible. Beginning in 1951, he served as deputy commander of NATO's European forces and remained in that position until his retirement in 1958. [224], Montgomery died from unspecified causes in 1976 at his home Isington Mill in Isington, Hampshire, aged 88. Despite selling off all the farms that were at Ballynally, "there was barely enough to keep up New Park and pay for the blasted summer holiday" (i.e., at New Park). If we cannot stay here alive, then we will stay here dead",[71] he told his officers at the first meeting he held with them in the desert, though, in fact, Auchinleck had no plans to withdraw from the strong defensive position he had chosen and established at El Alamein. He was rewarded for his service with promotions to Field Marshal, Bridgadier General, and Viscount. [132] Keegan wrote that Montgomery engaged in what he called a "hedging of his bets" when drafting his plans for Goodwood, with a plan for a "break out if the front collapsed, if not, sound documentary evidence that all he had intended in the first place was a battle of attrition". "[110] The Germans had deployed 12 divisions, of which six were Panzer divisions against the British while deploying eight divisions, of which three were Panzer divisions, against the Americans. Der Testsieger konnte beim Bernard montgomery ww2 … The objectives of Operation Goodwood were all achieved except the complete capture of the Bourgebus Ridge, which was partially taken. [172] Montgomery had little respect for the Canadian generals, whom he dismissed as mediocre, except for Simonds, whom he consistently praised as Canada's only "first-rate" general in the entire war. [173] Montgomery replied by accusing Ramsay of making "wild statements" unsupported by the facts, denying the Canadians were having to ration ammunition, and claimed that he would soon take the Ruhr thereby making the Scheldt campaign a sideshow. (Churchill sent a telegram to Alexander on 23 September 1942 which began, "We are in your hands and of course a victorious battle makes amends for much delay. The rivalry between Bernard Montgomery and George S. Patton … He was taken prisoner at Mersa Matruh on 7 November 1942. Curiously, this view does a great disservice to 'Monty' for any rigid planning of operations before the German response was known would have been bad generalship indeed! Although Caen contained an important road junction that Montgomery would eventually need, for the moment the capture of that city was only incidental to his mission. That being so, I consider that Lloyd George was right in what he did, if we had gone on we could probably have squashed the rebellion as a temporary measure, but it would have broken out again like an ulcer the moment we removed the troops. He ordered the creation of the X Corps, which contained all armoured divisions, to fight alongside his XXX Corps, which was all infantry divisions. [57] The 3rd Division returned to Britain intact with minimal casualties. [31] He had not at first been selected for the Staff College in Camberley, Surrey (his only hope of ever achieving high command). [91] Montgomery abhorred what he considered to be a lack of coordination, a dispersion of effort, a strategic muddle and a lack of opportunism in the Allied effort in Italy, and he said that he was glad to leave the "dog's breakfast" on 23 December 1943. [135], Operation Goodwood almost cost Montgomery his job, as Eisenhower seriously considered sacking him and only chose not to do so because to sack the popular "Monty" would have caused such a political backlash in Britain against the Americans at a critical moment in the war that the resulting strains in the Atlantic alliance were not considered worth it. Il est décoré du Distinguished Service Order(DSO). [217], During a visit to the Alamein battlefields in May 1967, he bluntly told high-ranking Egyptian Army officers that they would lose any war with Israel, a warning that was shown to be justified only a few weeks later in the Six-Day War. The Staff College, he struggled with the British public like that only saw! Over the next major Allied attack was stopped in very heavy fighting completing the course, he as! Were ready, he renamed his command the South-Eastern Army to promote offensive.... 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